Piri Reis map (1513)

Made by Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis, only a third of the map survives but shows the costs of Europe and North America with a degree of accuracy, as well as the coast of Brazil. The map extends the American continent south-eastward from what was definitively known at the time, which some have claimed suggests at least some awareness of Antarctica, though this is controversial. Others suggest that the extension depicts South America all the way to Cape Horn, which was secretly explored by Portuguese navigators before 1507. The land mass could have been bent south-east to fit the size of parchment Piri Reis was working with.

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